ultimate collection [from certain Government fees] beneath the quick authority of the Partnership, will generally be made because of the officials, and with regards to the statutes, designated by the several Claims. . .the fresh officers of one’s Says will be clothed towards correspondent authority of your own Connection.
The Federalist No. 45, at 292 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1961). The framers also seem to have acted upon this understanding. The first Judiciary Act, enacted by the first Congress, required state magistrates and justices of the peace to arrest and detain any criminal offender under the laws of the You. 1 Stat. § 33. This statute, in immaterially modified form, remains in effect. 18 U.S.C. § 3041. At least two courts have interpreted this statute to authorize state and local law enforcement officers to arrest an individual who violates federal law. Find United states v. Bowdach, 561 F.2d 1160 (5th Cir. 1977); Whitlock v. Boyer, 77 Ariz. 334, 271 P.2d 484 (1954).
As discussed below, the delegation to private persons or non-federal government officials of federal-law authority, sometimes incorrectly analyzed as raising Appointments Clause questions, can raise genuine questions under other constitutional doctrines, such as the non-delegation doctrine and general separation of powers principles. Compare United States, 841 F. Supp. 1479, 1486-89 (D. 1994) (appeal pending) (confusing Appointments Clause with separation of powers analysis in holding invalid a delegation to a state governor) with You v. Ferry County, 511 F. Supp. 546,552 (E.D. Wash. 1981) (correctly dismissing Appointments Clause argument and analyzing delegation to county commissioners under non-delegation doctrine). Continue reading “Actually it is rather probable that various other days,”